Skip to main content

Full text of "PCP"

See other formats


U.S. Department of Justice 

Drug Enforcement Administration 



_a*»ir** 




PCP 



Drug Intelligence Report 




DEA Sensitive 



DRUG ENFORCEMENT LIBRARY 



3 0326 1001 



5 09 



July 1994 
DEA-94052 



Document Classification DEA Sensitive (DS) Material marked (DS) is information that does not qualify for 

classification as National Security Information. It nevertheless 
requires special protection against unauthorized or inadvertent 
disclosure to protect sources and methods of investigative activity, 
evidence, and the integrity of pretrial case reports. DS material 
may be disseminated only to those persons having a bona fide 
need-to-know. Further, DS material must be stored in a locked 
container. If and when this document has fulfilled your needs, it 
must be destroyed by burning or shredding. 

All material on this page is Unclassified. 



Cover Photo: PCP in liquid and powder form. 



The Attorney General has determined that publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of 
the public business required by law of the Department of Justice. 



DEA Sensitive 



wsffsy<y. 




Drug Enforcement Administration 



*Worw<l> <l< * 



PCP 



Drug Intelligence Report 



This report was prepared by the Domestic Unit of the Strategic 
Intelligence Section. Comments and requests for copies are 
welcome and may be directed to the Publications Unit, 
Intelligence Division, DEA Headquarters at (202) 307-8726. 



July 1994 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 






DEA Sensitive 

ii 



DEA Sensitive 



ADMINISTRATOR'S MESSAGE 



Recent investigative intelligence and indicator data point to an increase in the trafficking and 
abuse of phencyclidine (PCP) in many areas of the United States, particularly California and 
several northeastern States. 

In response, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has made the development of 
major PCP investigations a priority. The DEA Los Angeles Field Division is serving as the 
focal point in this effort due to the primacy of Los Angeles-based organizations in the 
resurgence of PCP manufacturing and trafficking. In addition, DEA is tracking the 
distribution of four vital chemicals used in the manufacture of PCP — three of which currently 
are not "Listed Chemicals" pursuant to the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988. 

DEA strongly believes that a coordinated and concentrated effort directed at the major PCP 
traffickers will significantly disrupt existing PCP distribution networks. 




Thomas A. Constantine 
Administrator 



DEA Sensitive 



in 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 

iv 



DEA Sensitive 

CONTENTS 



iii Adminstrator's Message 

vii Executive Summary 

1 PCP: The Drug 

2 PCP Manufacture 

2 PCP Manufacturing Process 

4 PCP Analogues 

4 Laboratory Seizures 

6 Analysis of PCP Trafficking 

6 Evolution of Illicit PCP Manufacture/Trafficking 

7 National Overview 
7 Trafficking 
9 Distribution 

1 1 Price 

1 1 Developing Trends 

13 PCP Use and Effects 

13 PCP Use 

18 PCP Effects 

19 DEA Field Division Assessments 

19 Atlanta 

19 Boston 

19 Chicago 

20 Dallas 
20 Denver 
20 Detroit 

20 Houston 

21 Los Angeles 

22 Miami 
22 Newark 
22 New Orleans 

22 New York 

23 Philadelphia 
23 Phoenix 
23 San Diego 
23 San Francisco 

23 Seattle 

24 St. Louis 

24 Washington, DC 

25 Appendix 1: PCP-Related Street Terminology 

27 Appendix 2: Chemicals Commonly Used in The Clandestine Manufacture of PCP 

28 Appendix 3: PCP Analogues 

29 Appendix 4: Chemicals Controlled By the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act 

30 Appendix 5: Definitions 

31 Distribution 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 

VI 



DEA Sensitive 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 



Phencyclidine, commonly referred to as PCP, enjoyed a brief popularity in the United States in the late 
1960's and again from the middle to late 1970's. In 1978, PCP was transferred from Schedule III to 
Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act, thus classifying it as a drug with a high potential for 
abuse. From 1981 through 1985, abuse of the drug escalated significantly, particularly among persons 
under the age of 21. Circa 1986, and continuing through the late 1980's and early 1990's, demand for 
PCP was displaced in large measure by the widespread availability and use of crack cocaine. However, 
there are recent indications that PCP abuse is increasing once again in a number of cities. 

Reporting from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) shows that the estimated number of 
metropolitan-area PCP-related emergency room episodes, which had declined at a substantial rate over 
the past 3 years, rose from 1,529 during the second half of 1991 to 3,286 during the first half of 1993, an 
increase of more than 115 percent. Cities having increased PCP abuse rates during the first half of 1993 
included Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. 

The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse showed that lifetime and past year PCP use among the 
U.S. household population decreased from 1985 to 1990; however, 1991 survey data indicate an end to 
this downward use pattern. On the other hand, according to the 1993 National High School Senior 
Survey on Drug Abuse, PCP use among 12th graders has declined significantly during the past 7 years. 
This diminished use may stem from a heightened awareness among 12th graders of the perceived risks 
associated with PCP use. 

PCP is available in varying degrees in a limited number of U.S. cities. PCP in liquid form, the most 
common form available in the United States, costs $200 to $1,500 per ounce nationally. The lowest 
liquid ounce prices are reported in Los Angeles, the source for most of the PCP trafficked in the United 
States. 

Reporting indicates that the majority of the nation's PCP supply is manufactured and distributed by Los 
Angeles-based street gangs, affiliates, and similar trafficking groups. Buses, trains, airlines, and private 
automobiles are used to transport PCP from California sources of supply to secondary source cities 
across the country. 

PCP trafficking involves producers/traffickers who manufacture PCP and conduct multigallon 
transactions, distributors who separate gallons into ounces and further into retail level packages of PCP- 
laced plant matter, and retail sellers who sell these packages or perform the packaging process 
themselves. 

In 1993, DEA seized six PCP laboratories nationwide. To date during 1994, two PCP laboratories have 
been seized. While the number of seized laboratories has increased over the past 3 years, the total 
number is significantly below the number of laboratories seized during the late 1970's and early 1980's. 
However, these recent figures are not necessarily indicative of limited or minimal PCP manufacture: 
more than 70 PCP-related chemical waste sites were identified in the Southern California area alone 
during 1993. 



DEA Sensitive 



Vll 



DEA Sensitive 




Vehicle used to transport chemicals used in the manufacture of PCP. 




Gloves used in the manufacturing process with PCP residue on them. 



via 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP: THE DRUG 



Phencyclidine, commonly known as PCP, is a versatile, clandestinely manufactured hallucinogen that 
appears to be regaining popularity among drug users as the crack cocaine epidemic levels off. The 
chemicals needed to manufacture PCP are readily available and inexpensive. PCP manufacture requires 
neither extensive formal knowledge of chemistry nor a large inventory of laboratory equipment. 
Manufacturing and wholesale trafficking are controlled by a limited number of groups based in Los 
Angeles that recognize the potentially large profits to be realized from a minimal investment. PCP is 
sold primarily in urban neighborhoods in a limited number of U.S. cities. 



PCP was first synthesized in 1926. 1 It was not 
until 1957, however, that it was developed as a 
human anesthetic. Later, it found use in 
veterinary medicine as a powerful tranquilizer. 
Human use was discontinued in 1965 because of 
adverse side effects, such as confusion and 
delirium. PCP continued to be used for several 
more years as a large primate anesthetic, but this 
use has been discontinued as well. 

In 1978, commercial manufacture of PCP ceased 
(though small amounts still are manufactured 
legally as a drug standard and for research 
purposes) and the drug was transferred from 
Schedule III to Schedule II of the Controlled 
Substances Act of 1970 (CSA). As a Schedule II 
drug, PCP is considered to have a currently 
accepted medical use in treatment in the United 
States, a high potential for abuse, and its use may 
lead to severe psychological or physical 
dependence. Since 1978, clandestine laboratories 
have been virtually the sole source for PCP in the 
United States. 



PCP enjoyed a brief popularity among drug users 
in the late 1960's when it was trafficked as a 
"Magic Peace Pill," and the acronym PCP 
("PeaCe Pill") possibly was derived from this 
term. Abuse of the drug resurfaced in the mid-to- 
late 1970's because of its low price and powerful 
effects. From 1981 through 1985, PCP abuse 
escalated significantly, particularly among 
teenagers. Cities experiencing significant PCP 
availability and abuse levels in the early to mid- 
1980' s included Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, Los 
Angeles, New Orleans, New York City, San 
Diego, San Francisco, St. Louis, and 
Washington, DC. Circa 1986, and continuing 
through the early 1990's, demand for PCP was 
displaced in large measure by the widespread 
availability and use of crack cocaine. However, 
recent indicators point to increasing PCP 
trafficking and abuse in a number of cities. 



Harvey W. Feldman, Michael H. Agar, and George M. 
Beschner, eds., Angel Dust, An Ethnographic Study of PCP 
Users, 1979, p 8. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP MANUFACTURE 



PCP MANUFACTURING PROCESS 

The manufacture of PCP is a simple process; it 
requires little formal chemical training and 
laboratory apparatus. As true in any chemical 
synthesis, the precursor chemicals themselves 
produce PCP when combined correctly. 

The most common method of clandestine PCP 
manufacture is known as the "bucket method" 
(see figure 1 ). The laboratory operator combines 
the required initial stage chemicals in a bucket 
and allows the mixture to stand for at least 8 
hours. This process produces 
1 -piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC). 
When the operator then combines the remaining 
chemicals with the PCC, PCP begins to form 
immediately. The resulting product is PCP in 
liquid form (often yellowish in color). Liquid 
PCP is actually phencyclidine base dissolved in a 
highly flammable solvent, usually ether; 
phencyclidine base does not dissolve in water. 
To produce PCP in powder form, hydrochloride 
(HC1) gas is bubbled into, or concentrated HC1 
acid is added to, the liquid. 

In its pure form, phencyclidine hydrochloride is 
a white crystalline powder that readily dissolves 
in water and can be compressed into tablets. 
However, as a result of its makeshift 
manufacture, PCP typically contains 
contaminants that cause its color to range from 
tan to brown, and its consistency to range from a 
powder to a gummy mass. 

In addition to ease of manufacture, production of 
PCP requires only a slight monetary expenditure 
for chemicals. PCP can be manufactured for less 
than $500 per gallon. This gallon then can be 
sold to a local trafficker for from $7,000 to 
$10,000; the enormous profit margin provides 
the incentive for engaging in PCP manufacturing 
and trafficking (see figure 7). 



Figure 1 




The chemicals required to manufacture PCP are 
readily available, except for the precursor 
chemical piperidine. Over the past several years, 
the DEA Los Angles Field Division estimates 
that PCP traffickers in California acquired 
sufficient quantities of the required chemicals to 
have manufactured up to 4,000 gallons of PCP. 

Recent reporting indicates that innovative PCP 
traffickers are using two methods to overcome the 
difficulties of acquiring commercially 
manufactured piperidine. First, the more 
enterprising PCP traffickers simply are 
manufacturing their own piperidine. Second, 
some PCP traffickers are substituting pyrrolidine 
for piperidine, which produces 1-(1- 
phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine or PHP, a Schedule 
I analogue of PCP. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 




Typical PCP bucket laboratory with broomstick. 




PCC product awaiting processing. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP ANALOGUES 



LABORATORY SEIZURES 



Three common analogues of PCP have been 
manufactured clandestinely. All three are 
Schedule I controlled substances and have been 
determined to have no medical value. These 
analogues are N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine 
(PCE), l-(l-phenylcyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine (PCP; 
PHP), and l-[l-(2-thienyl-cyclohexyl)]- 
piperidine (TCP; TPCP). Many of the chemicals 
commonly used in the clandestine manufacture 
of PCP also are used to manufacture PCP 
analogues (see appendix 3). 

Figure 2 



Abandoned PCP Chemical Sites 

in Southern California 

January 1993 - February 1994 



Los Angeles City 


8 


Los Angeles County 


19 


Riverside County 


36 


San Bernardino County 


4 


Chemical Waste Management 


5 


TOTAL 


72 



From 1985 to 1993, nationwide PCP laboratory 
seizures annually have ranged from a low of three 
to a high of 21, totals considerably below the high 
of 79 laboratories seized in 1978. Of the eight 
laboratories seized in 1993 and 1994 to date, one- 
half were seized in California. 

Although PCP laboratory seizures have increased 
over the past 3 years, their numbers remain 
significantly below the number of laboratories 
seized during the late 1970's and early 1980's. 
However, these recent figures should not be 
considered as an indication of limited or minimal 
PCP manufacture. To the contrary, in 1993 more 
than 70 PCP-related chemical waste sites were 
identified in the Southern California area alone. 



Figure 3 




PCP Clandestine Laboratory 
Seizures in the United States 



20 



21 21 



I( "III " 

liilliU«« 



1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 





Ethyl Ether used to make PCP. 



Waste product from PCP manufacture. 





PCP sample and manufacturing waste. 



Liquid PCP. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



ANALYSIS OF PCP TRAFFICKING 



EVOLUTION OF ILLICIT PCP 
MANUFACTURING/TRAFFICKING 

The most significant innovation in illegal PCP 
manufacturing and trafficking occurred circa 1980, 
when liquid PCP in large measure replaced the 
powdered form. During the 1970's, most of the PCP 
was sold in powdered form, commonly referred to as 
"Angel Dust," and was smoked in hand-rolled 
cigarettes or snorted like cocaine. However, as PCP 
distribution changed hands in the 1980's — from 
small-scale, individual processors and distributors to 
large-scale, professional trafficking groups — liquid 
PCP became the most available form. 

The change from powder to liquid occurred because, 
as demand for PCP increased in the 1980's, traffickers 
were forced to restock their supplies more quickly and 
discovered the advantages of abbreviating the 
manufacturing process. The extra chemical procedure 
used to manufacture PCP powder was eliminated to 
save time, money, and chemicals. In addition, users 



found soaking of plant matter in liquid PCP more 
efficient than sprinkling PCP powder on cigarettes. 
By uniformly spreading the psychoactive particles of 
the drug over the matter, soaking eliminated "hot 
spots" of concentrated PCP encountered when its 
powdered form is smoked. 

The change from powdered to liquid form also caused 
a minor inconvenience to retail sellers. Beyond 
merely placing PCP into foil, baggies, or paper 
packets, the sellers now were required to obtain large 
quantities of plant matter, soak it in liquid PCP, and 
wait for it to dry. 

Occasionally, the plant matter is placed in frozen 
storage immediately after it is soaked in liquid PCP to 
delay evaporation and prevent a perceived loss of 
psychoactive substance. (Frozen storage of PCP- 
laced matter is believed to trap the smell of 
cyclohexanone, which is a common "field test" used 
on the street to check PCP purity.) After the plant 
matter is frozen, it is crushed, weighed, and packaged. 



Figure 4 



PCP: 1 




FROM SOURCE TO THE STREET 


Wholesale Trafficker 




Distributor 




Retail Seller 


• manufactures or purchases 1 


• divides gallon into ounce 


• sells bags/envelopes 


gallon of PCP in Los Angeles. 




bottles. 




containing PCP-laced plant 
matter for $10 to $50. 


• transports gallon from Los 




OR 






Angeles by air, train, bus, or 








OR 


automobile to a secondary 




• purchases 1 or 2 ounces 






source city. 




weekly and transports PCP 
from secondary source city 




• purchases ounce bottles 
from local distributor and 


• dilutes 1 gallon with 




to local market. 




performs packaging 


chemicals to produce 2 or 








process. 


more gallons. 




• dips plant matter into liquid 
PCP, allows to dry, and 
places into bags/envelopes 
for retail sale. 

















DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



NATIONAL OVERVIEW 



TRAFFICKING 



Wholesale PCP trafficking is controlled by groups 
that manufacture bulk quantities of liquid PCP and 
allocate multigallon quantities to distributors. The 
distributors separate the gallons into ounce bottles 
for sale to retail sellers. The distributors also 
package the PCP by dipping plant matter into the 
liquid, letting it dry, and placing it into bags or 
envelopes ready for retail sale. The retail sellers 
either sell these bags on the street or perform the 
packaging process themselves from ounce bottles 
purchased from distributors. 

PCP is manufactured domestically from a readily 
available supply of chemicals. Reporting from 
law enforcement agencies indicates that the vast 
majority of the PCP available in the United States 
is manufactured in clandestine laboratories in the 
Southern California area. Consequently, PCP 
traffickers are not faced with some of the 
problems affecting traffickers of other illegal 
drugs. For instance, importers of cocaine and 
heroin into the United States must transport their 
contraband over long distances from source 
countries and across international boundaries, 
ultimately circumventing U.S. Customs Service 
inspections. 

PCP manufacturing and wholesale trafficking are 
controlled by a limited number of Los Angeles- 
based street gangs, their affiliates, and similar 
trafficking groups. In contrast, PCP distribution is 
carried out by a large number of smaller, 
independent groups of free lance distributors and 
individual retail sellers that operate in secondary 
source cities, such as Chicago, New York City, 
and Washington, DC, and in many smaller cities 
and suburban areas. According to law 
enforcement officials and drug epidemiologists, 
PCP is available in varying degrees in a limited 
number of U.S. cities, primarily Baltimore, 
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, 
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington, DC. 



PCP is the only illicit drug routinely trafficked in 
liquid form; as such, it presents unique challenges 
to traffickers, particularly in regard to limiting 
odors, spillage, and breakage. (Liquid PCP is the 
most commonly encountered form of the drug 
primarily because the manufacture of PCP 
powder requires an additional expensive and time 
consuming chemical process — a process deemed 
unnecessary by the PCP trafficker.) In addition, 
the trafficking of liquid PCP always is hazardous 
due to the highly flammable solvents used in its 
manufacture. This hazard is most pronounced 
when airplanes, trains, and buses are used to 
transport PCP. For example, on May 5, 1993, the 
Kansas City International Airport terminal was 
closed for 4 hours while the Kansas City Fire 
Department's hazardous materials team contained 
and decontaminated a spill after a bottle of liquid 
PCP had broken open inside a soft-sided suitcase. 

Investigative reporting has identified several 
trafficking operations in the Los Angeles area 
capable of manufacturing 100-gallon quantities of 
PCP at a time. Airlines, buses, trains, and private 
automobiles are used to transport PCP from Los 
Angeles-area sources of supply to secondary 
source cities located across the country. The 
amounts transported generally range from 1 to 2 
quarts, although several shipments seized in 1993 
consisted of up to 5 gallons of PCP each. 

PCP shipments are relatively small in volume 
because the liquid converts into a large number of 
individual retail sales. For example, 1 gallon of 
liquid PCP can be divided into 128 ounces and 
each ounce can produce an estimated 50 retail 
bags of PCP-laced plant matter, totalling 6,400 
bags per gallon. (Each bag contains enough plant 
matter to make 2 medium-sized cigarettes.) 
Furthermore, the initial gallon can be expanded 
by the distributor, merely by diluting the liquid 
with a commercially available solvent, such as 
Coleman's fuel. Transporting small volume 
amounts of PCP also affords the trafficker a 
measure of direct oversight and control over the 
shipment that are not possible with bulk 
shipments. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



Wholesale traffickers seldom accompany a 
shipment of PCP from Los Angeles to secondary 
source cities; lower level associates, often 
recruited from gang territories in Los Angeles' 
poor neighborhoods, typically transport the 
product while the trafficker travels by an 
alternate route. Female couriers are used 
frequently in the belief that they are less likely to 
be scrutinized by law enforcement. 

Traffickers alter transportation conveyances, 
routes, and methods of concealment according to 
perceived law enforcement pressure, or to reduce 
costs or time in transit. If a trafficker has lost his 
shipment of PCP to seizure or breakage at an 
airport, he can ship PCP consignments by 
automobile or bus. A recent investigation in the 
Los Angeles area revealed that members of the 
Bloods street gang directed their couriers through 
the Long Beach, California, Greyhound bus 
station to preclude detection at larger bus stations 
located in the Los Angeles area. 

When using commercial airlines, PCP couriers 
often exhibit the same frequently occurring 
characteristics that have been identified by law 
enforcement personnel as indicative of the 
presence of contraband. These include cash 
purchase of a one-way ticket, nervous demeanor, 
and use of aliases. In addition, many PCP 
couriers carry two suitcases when travelling on 
commercial airlines: one suitcase, carried on 
board into the passenger cabin, contains clothing 
and personal items; the other contains the PCP 
shipment and is checked into the luggage 
compartment. Upon detention by interdiction 
authorities, the courier can deny ownership of the 
second suitcase and display the carry-on suitcase 
to bolster the plausibility of that denial. 

Transportation of PCP by public conveyance 
exposes the trafficker to increased risks of 
detection because of the strong odors and 
increased chances of spillage or breakage. 
Therefore, coffee grounds, sheets of fabric 
softener, or other substances often are used to 
mask the potent odor of PCP liquid. For 
example, in a recent investigation, a suspected 
PCP trafficker travelling from Dallas, Texas, to 



Los Angeles was detained and, upon alert from a 
narcotics K-9 unit, was found to have $12,000 in 
cash and two suitcases containing coffee grounds. 

Liquid PCP commonly has a yellowish hue and, 
in order to disguise it during transport, it often is 
placed in clear glass bottles or jars of Listerine, 
apple juice, white wine, baby shampoo, or other 
commercial products of a similar color. 
Otherwise, colored glass bottles are used to 
disguise PCP during transport, including 
medicine containers, vanilla extract bottles, or 
liquor bottles. For larger, bulk quantities, steel 
drums or gasoline cans are used to transport PCP 
and its precursors. Plastic or aluminum 
containers seldom are used to store liquid PCP 
because of the adverse chemical reactions that 
occur between the solvents and the containers. 

Delivery Services 2 

Due to interdiction efforts at major airports across 
the nation, drug traffickers also use express mail 
services to transport PCP and its precursor 
chemicals across the United States. Overnight 
delivery services, such as Airborne, Express Mail, 
Federal Express, and the United Parcel Service 
are preferred by traffickers who believe that swift 
delivery precludes thorough screening of the 
parcel by the delivery company and drug 
interdiction authorities. Beyond the rapid 
transport of their contraband, this system provides 
the trafficker with an early warning device in that 
any late delivery is viewed as possibly 
compromised and could represent an attempted 
controlled delivery by law enforcement officials. 
Some traffickers instruct the recipient to decline 
acceptance of a parcel that is delivered late. In 
addition, traffickers understand that intercepted 
PCP shipments yield little valuable intelligence 
for law enforcement. 



This section contains information obtained from the Parcel Task 
Force of the Los Angeles Police Department Narcotics Group. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



Experienced law enforcement personnel have 
identified several common characteristics of 
parcels signalling the presence of illegal drugs, 
such as PCP. These characteristics include cash 
payment for the service (i.e., not charged to a 
corporate account), erroneous or nonexistent 
return addresses, the existence of strong odors, 
such as coffee grounds or fabric softener used to 
mask narcotics odors, and heavily taped 
openings or seams. The actions of the shipping 
party also have been used to help identify 
possible drug parcels, including arriving with 
parcel just prior to closing of shipping office, 
parking vehicles away from shipping office 
premises despite available parking, appearing 
rushed or nervous, engaging in 
countersurveillance, and providing contradictory 
information. 

Use of a friend's or relative's residence for 
delivery of drug parcels is common. 
Inconspicuous "drop houses" also are used; 
usually, they are occupied by a trafficker's 
subordinate. Use of drop houses helps to 
insulate the trafficker from arrest, as well as 
preventing the seizure of drugs and other 
incriminating evidence from the traffickers 
residence. Reporting reveals that some 
traffickers ship drugs by delivery services to a 
drop house, then fly by commercial airlines to 
the destination city to acquire the parcel. 

The primary drawback of shipping liquid PCP by 
the mail system is the high risk of breakage, 
because it is often transported in glass bottles. 
The fact that such breakage presents a hazard to 
delivery service employees and to the public is 
of little concern to the trafficker because this 
type of incident is viewed merely as a loss of 
product. 

Because PCP most commonly is encountered in 
its volatile liquid form, postal, delivery, and law 
enforcement employees should exercise caution 
when handling parcels suspected of containing 
PCP. In addition, when liquid PCP is suspected, 
canine drug searches of the parcel should not be 
executed because the strong odors emitted by the 
solvents cause serious damage to dogs' olfactory 
organs. 



DISTRIBUTION 

PCP is the most versatile substance available to 
illicit drug distributors and sellers for two main 
reasons. First, because it appears in liquid, 
powder, or tablet form, it can be administered 
intravenously, intranasally, orally, and through 
inhalation, offering the seller several ways to 
package and market the drug. Second, because 
the effects of PCP intoxication vary widely, PCP 
can be disguised as many other drugs, either in 
one of its various forms and colors or by 
adulterating another substance, such as marijuana 
or mushrooms. Since its appearance on the 
streets of San Francisco in 1967, PCP has been 
misrepresented as amphetamine, cocaine, delta-9 
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the psychoactive 
ingredient in marijuana), ketamine, d-lysergic 
acid diethylamide (LSD), and peyote. 

The primary reason for engaging in such 
deception is that PCP's negative reputation — 
stemming from the severe physical and 
psychological reactions to PCP intoxication — 
sometimes requires sellers to disguise the 
substance to continue selling it, particularly to 
naive users. Nonetheless, despite its negative 
reputation on the streets, PCP is the drug of 
choice among certain groups of drug users. Its 
use is considered a challenge whereby the user 
tries to maintain control under the influence of a 
very powerful tranquilizer. 

Current retail-level PCP distribution closely 
follows the sales techniques pioneered by crack 
sellers in the mid-to-late 1980's. Crack 
distribution is characterized by a large number of 
sellers who rapidly and recurrently engage in 
single transactions. Although PCP sales do not 
occur with the same frequency as crack sales, and 
comparatively few street sellers offer PCP in 
addition to crack, the availability of PCP in urban 
areas has increased as a result of the development 
of a bustling marketplace where frequent 
individual drug sales are the norm. In many 
urban neighborhoods, drug users now have access 
to a large number of drug sellers involved in retail 
sales of cocaine, crack, heroin, marijuana, and 
PCP. 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



Distributors and sellers package PCP or PCP- 
laced plant matter, typically marijuana, mint, 
oregano, or parsley, in small paper or plastic bags 
and envelopes. Retail-level sellers provide 
individual tobacco or marijuana cigarettes dipped 
in liquid PCP. Commercially produced cigars or 
brown paper cigarettes, such as Shermans or 
Tijuana Smalls, are preferred for dipping into 
liquid PCP because little discoloration of the 
brown paper occurs; on white paper, the 
discoloration is discerned easily by law 
enforcement officials. PCP also can be injected 
into cigarettes with a syringe. 



In the 1970's, distributors changed the color and 
consistency of the PCP powder to match the 
characteristics perceived by the local user 
population as indicative of a high-quality 
product. Present day distributors rely on 
packaging with colorful names, characters, and 
designs to identify their product and enhance 
customer loyalty. In New York City, some 
packages are stamped with a number that 
indicates the block on which the PCP was 
purchased. For example, an envelope stamped 
"1 16" signifies that it was purchased at Madison 
Avenue and 1 16th Street in Manhattan. 



As is the case with cocaine and heroin, "brand 
name" loyalty plays a large role in PCP sales at 
the street level. PCP has been sold under 
numerous street names (see Appendix 1) 
including "Angel Dust," "Crystal," "Embalming 
Fluid," "Hog," "Killer Joints," "Ozone," "Rocket 
Fuel," "Supergrass," and "Wack," all of which 
reflect the wide range of its bizarre and volatile 
effects. 




b u b a a 

QDOQCj 

a b ci o a 

iQISQIBBQ 



t(2 t|3 M *3 *6 %7 18 14 20 2.1 2i2 23 24 *$ 2« 7 7 W» ^* 




"Crazy Eddie" PCP Packets. 



10 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PRICE 

PCP in liquid form sells for $200 to 
$1,500 per ounce nationally. The 
lowest liquid ounce prices are reported 
in Los Angeles, the source for most of 
the PCP trafficked in the United States, 
where such quantities cost from $200 
to $300. Nationwide, the price for 
PCP in powdered form ranges from 
$500 to $1 ,200 per ounce. The price 
for a gallon of PCP ranges from $5,000 
to $10,000 in Los Angeles, and is 
approximately $13,000 in New York 
City. Individual cigarettes saturated 
with PCP cost from $5 to $70 
nationwide. 

DEVELOPING TRENDS 



Recent investigations reveal that 
several Los Angeles-based PCP traffickers are 
relocating their manufacturing operations to 
lessen their risk of detection by law enforcement 
officials. Reporting indicates that remote, rural 
areas in Mississippi, Texas, and desert regions in 
California have been surveyed as possible 
clandestine PCP laboratory sites. Desert 
environments feature arid conditions that are 
preferred for manufacturing PCP. 




PCP on tobacco and parsley. 

For example, due to regulations placed on the sale 
of piperidine, several PCP traffickers have begun 
manufacturing piperidine. In addition, some 
traffickers are substituting pyrrolidine for 
piperidine in the manufacturing process to create 
PHP, a PCP analogue that produces effects very 
similar to those of PCP. This is of concern to law 
enforcement officials because PHP is not easily 
identified in urinalysis exams. 



Figure 5 



A few PCP traffickers are circumventing Federal 

regulations established under the 

Chemical Diversion and Trafficking 

Act of 1988(CDTA)by 

manufacturing essential PCP 

precursors themselves, rather than 

purchasing the precursors from 

companies that are required to report 

such transactions (see appendix 4). 



PCP Prices 

National Ranges 



Powdered 
Ounce 



Liquid 
Ounce 



$1700 



S1000 




$2000 



S1000 



$2000 




$800 



$2000 




IS1200 



$500 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1993 



DEA Sensitive 



11 



DEA Sensitive 



This emerging trend toward independent 
manufacturing of precursors has prompted DEA 
to consider an amendment to the CDTA 
regarding the registration of chemical firms and 
the addition of other chemicals on the regulated 
chemicals list. One possible addition is iodine, 
which is used both in the manufacture of PCP 
and in the production of hydriodic acid, a 
precursor to methamphetamine. Other chemicals 
that are not currently regulated and would be 
added include bromobenzene, cyclohexanone, 
and phenylmagnesium bromide. 

PCP often is trafficked by polydrug 
organizations, such as Los Angeles-based street 
gangs that usually are involved in distributing 
crack cocaine. Since the mid-to-late 1980's, 
crack traffickers have established networks of 
distribution in large metropolitan centers, smaller 
cities, and rural areas. These networks of 
distribution easily can be used to traffic and to 
distribute PCP. This creates the potential for 
increased PCP availability at all drug sales 
locations. 



Figure 7 



Figure 6 



PCP PRECURSORS: 
LICIT MARKET PRICES 


Chemical 


Quantity 


Price 


Price per 

Gallon of 

PCP 


Bromobenzene 


1 gal 


$100 


$25 


Cyclohexanone 


1 gal 


$50 


$25 


Sodium Cyanide 


1 lb 


$20 


$10 


Ether 


1 gal 


$40 


$40 


Magnesium Turnings 


1 lb 


$25 


$15 


Sodium Hydroxide 


1 lb 


$8 


$4 


Piperidine* 


1 gal 


$1,000 


$300 


Total Cost $1,243 


$419 



Selling Prices for PCP at 

Successive 

Trafficking Stages 



United States 

Chemicals required to manufacture 

1 gallon of PCP 

$500 



Los Angeles 

Gallon sold to local Trafficker 

$7,000 -$10,000 



United States 

Gallon divided into ounces 

(1 28 x $200 - $1 ,500 per ounce) 

$25,600 -$192,000 



Boston 

Ounce processed into "dime" bags 

(50 x $50 per bag) 

$2,500 

Boston 

Estimated proceeds off sales from 1 gallon 

(128 oz. x $2,500) 

$320,000 






* Black market price 



12 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP USE AND EFFECTS 



PCP USE 

The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 
(see appendix 5) showed that lifetime and past 
year PCP use among the U.S. household 
population decreased from 1985 to 1990 (see 
figure 8); however, 1991 and 1992 survey data 
indicate an end to this downward use pattern. 
From 1990 to 1992, the number of Americans 
aged 1 2 years and older who used PCP at least 
once increased from 6.0 million to 8.1 million, 
while the number who had used PCP in the past 
year increased from 307,000 to 467,000. 
Nevertheless, the number of past year users in 
1992 remained significantly below the number 
reported in 1985 when 1.2 million Americans 
reported using PCP at least once yearly. 

According to the 1993 National High School 
Senior Survey on Drug Abuse, PCP use among 
12th graders has declined significantly over the 
past 8 years (see figure 9). From 1985 through 
1992, the percentage of seniors who used PCP at 
least once in their lifetime decreased from 4.9 
percent to 2.4 percent. Comparable declines also 
were reported during that same period in the 
percentage of seniors who used PCP during the 
past year, past month, and on a daily basis. This 
diminished use is believed to be due in large part 
to a significant increase among 1 2th graders in 
the perceived risk of harm associated with PCP 
usage. However, data from the current survey 
indicate increases in lifetime and past month use 
of PCP for the Class of 1 993 . 

Reporting from the Drug Abuse Warning 
Network (DAWN) shows that the estimated 
number of metropolitan-area PCP-related 
emergency room episodes, which had declined at 
a substantial rate from 1989 through 1991, rose 
steadily from 1 ,529 during the second half of 



1991 to 3,286 during the first half of 1993— an 
increase of 1 15 percent (see figure 10). Cities 
having high or increased PCP abuse rates include 
Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, 
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington, 
DC (see figure 11). 

Reporting from DAWN indicates that the 
smoking of PCP continues to be the predominant 
route of administration used by patients admitted 
to DAWN emergency rooms for PCP and PCP 
combination-related problems (see figure 12). 
However, the percentage of patients who 
indicated that smoking was their primary method 
of administration decreased from 86 percent in 
1990 to 75.4 percent in 1992. Concomitantly, the 
percentage of patients who administered PCP 
orally increased from 7.5 percent to 17.8 percent 
in the same time frame. 

DAWN reporting further shows that, nationally, 
approximately 73 percent of the admissions to 
hospital emergency rooms for PCP and PCP 
combination-related problems in 1992 were male, 
and over 76 percent were between 20 and 39 
years of age. 

Rates of PCP use detected through urinalysis of 
recently booked male and female arrestees, as 
reported by the Drug Use Forecasting Program 
(DUF), remained relatively low and stable in 

1992 when compared to rates for cocaine and 
marijuana. Cities having the highest percentage 
of positive urinalyses for PCP among booked 
male arrestees were Kansas City (9%) and 
Philadelphia (5%) (see figure 13). Cities having 
the highest percentages of positive results among 
booked female arrestees were San Jose (6%), Los 
Angeles (4%), and Washington, DC (4%) (see 
figure 14). 



DEA Sensitive 



13 



Figure 8 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP Use: Survey Data 



Frequency of PCP Use 

Among the U.S. 

Population 



^ NA 


/ 


1,210,000 


/ 






6,540,000 


A 




1985 



1988 



1990 



1991 



1992 



Source: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 
Survey was not taken in 1986, 1987, and 1989. 



Past Month 
Past Year 



Ever Used 

(not to scale) 



Figure 9 



Frequency of PCP Use Among 
High School Seniors 




Class of 
1985 



1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 

Source: National High School Senior Survey on Drug Abuse. 



1991 



14 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP and PCP Combinations Emergency Room Episodes 



Figure 10 



4,476 



Nationwide Metropolitan-Area Emergency Room 
PCP Abuse Episodes* 



1 'B 


3,566 

MM 

1 * m 



3,286 



3,015 



1st 
Half 



2nd 
Half 




1st 
Half 



2nd 
Half 



1989 



1990 



1991 



1992 



1st 
Half 
1993 



Figure 11 



Metropolitan Areas Having the Highest Number 
of PCP Emergency Room Episodes* 


Metropolitan 
Area 


1990 
2nd Half 


1991 
1st Half 


1991 
2nd Half 


1992 
1st Half 


1992 
2nd Half 


1993*** 
1st Half 


Baltimore 


55 


26 


130 


135 


231 


297 


Boston 


29 


* * 


* * 


44 


31 


* * 


Chicago 


538 


502 


177 


261 


228 


269 


Los Angeles 


485 


572 


431 


479 


630 


755 


New Orleans 


31 


* * 


* * 


41 


46 


26 


New York 


316 


162 


252 


* * 


633 


571 


Philadelphia 


55 


34 


34 


100 


97 


177 


San Diego 


* * 


55 


31 


31 


43 


46 


San Francisco 


124 


142 


51 


76 


* * 


84 


Washington, DC 


343 


228 


215 


256 


374 


* * 



* Estimates are based on DAWN data and generated from probability sample. 

** Precise estimates not available or estimate is less than 10, which also describes data from the following 

metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Buffalo, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Miami, Minneapolis, Newark, Phoenix, 

Seattle, and St. Louis. 
*** Preliminary and subject to update. 



DEA Sensitive 



15 



DEA Sensitive 



Figure 12 



PCP and PCP Combinations Use: 
Hospital Emergency Rooms Admissions 



Route of Administration 



I 



1990 



1991 



1992 



Other* 

8.9% 




! 40+ 
10% 




Other* 
6.8% 



1992 




6-19 
13.5% 



40+ 



Race 



1 



1990 



1991 




Sex 



Other 
1.3% 



1 



1992 




1990 



1991 



1992 






Other routes of administration include inhaling, injecting and sniffing. 



16 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP Use by Arrestees" 



Figure 13 



Male Arrestees (% Positive) 


Metropolitan 
Area 


1987 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


Chicago 


11 


14 


12 


15 


8 


3 


Cleveland 


- 


4 


3 


1 


1 


2 


Dallas 


-- 


** 


1 


** 


** 


3 


Kansas City 


-- 


2 


4 


4 


5 


9 


Los Angeles 


5 


5 


4 


5 


3 


3 


Manhattan 


3 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


New Orleans 


18 


6 


3 


4 


2 


3 


Philadelphia 


-- 


1 


2 


2 


3 


5 


Phoenix 


2 


1 


** 


** 


** 


** 


St. Louis 


-- 


8 


7 


5 


4 


1 


San Diego 


6 


5 


5 


4 


2 


2 


San Jose 


-- 


- 


14 


9 


7 


4 


Washington, DC 


-- 


-- 


14 


6 


4 


4 



Figure 14 



Female Arrestees (% Positive) 


Metropolitan 
Area 


1988 


1989 


1990 


1991 


1992 


Cleveland 


-- 


- 


** 


1 


1 


Dallas 





1 


** 


** 


** 


Ft. Lauderdale 


-- 


** 


1 


** 


** 


Kansas City 


-- 


3 


4 


2 


3 


Los Angeles 


6 


7 


3 


2 


4 


Manhattan 


1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


New Orleans 


4 


4 


2 


1 


1 


Philadelphia 


— 


1 


1 


** 


3 


Phoenix 


1 


2 


** 


** 





St. Louis 


- 


9 


3 


1 


1 


San Diego 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


San Jose 


-- 


15 


13 


7 


6 


Washington, DC 


-- 


15 


4 


2 


4 



* Positive by urinalysis. (1993 DUF data are not available.) 

** Less than 1 percent, which also largely describes data from the following metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Birmingham, Denver, 
Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale (male only), Houston, Indianapolis, Miami, Omaha, Portland, and San Antonio. 

SOURCE: National Institute of Justice/Drug Use Forecasting Program. 



DEA Sensitive 



17 



DEA Sensitive 



PCP EFFECTS 

PCP is classified as an hallucinogen under the 
CSA. However, significant differences exist 
between PCP and other hallucinogens such as 
LSD. First, PCP by itself can lead to overdose 
and death. Second, PCP is the only 
hallucinogenic substance that laboratory animals 
will self-administer in controlled experiments. 3 
Furthermore, the hallucinogenic effects of PCP 
differ from those of LSD. While LSD tends to 
produce visual psychedelic illusions, PCP often 
causes distorted perceptions in the form of mind- 
body disassociation and sensory deprivation. 4 In 
addition to hallucinogenic effects, the effects of 
PCP can mimic those of stimulants and 
depressants, presenting unique problems for law 
enforcement officials and medical personnel 
when encountering PCP abusers. The effects of 
PCP intoxication depend on dosage, social 
setting, personality traits, route of administration, 
and other factors. Many experienced users snort 
PCP powder because this route of administration 
is a more effective method of controlling the 
effects than smoking or oral ingestion, both of 
which proved to be more potent. 5 

PCP affects the normal transmission of chemical 
signals between nerve cells and other organs, 
particularly the areas of the brain that control 
pain, emotional expression, aggression, vision, 
hearing, and motor movement. 6 A low dosage (2 
to 5 milligrams) of PCP produces mild 
depression, then stimulation. A moderate dosage 
(10 to 15 milligrams) of PCP can produce a 
desirable sensory deprived state, high blood 
pressure, combative behavior, inability to talk, a 
rigid robotic attitude, confusion, agitation, and 
paranoid thinking. High dosages (above 20 
milligrams) can result in catatonia, coma, 



Sensations Following the Use of PCP 

• feeling of depersonalization 

• sense of distance and estrangement from 
surroundings 

• slow body movements 

• poor muscular coordination and dull impulses 

• staggered body movement 

• blocked, sparse, purposeless speech 

• auditory and visual hallucinations 

• feelings of impending doom or death 

• dulling of touch and pain sensations 

• feelings of strength, power, and invulnerability 



convulsions, seizures, respiratory depression, and 
cardiovascular instability. In addition, use of 
PCP induces amnesia. 7 Depending upon the 
dosage, the effects of PCP intoxication can last 
from 1 or 2 hours up to 48 hours. There is no 
single antidote or drug that will allay the effects 
of PCP intoxication. 8 

Once ingested, PCP is stored in the body's fat 
cells for up to several months and, in a process 
known as enterogastric recirculation, it can 
reenter the bloodstream during exercise or fasting 
well after the initial effects have dissipated, 
creating a "flashback" effect. 9 In addition, PCP 
can be transferred through the placenta from a 
pregnant user to the fetus. Alarmingly, due to the 
recirculation process, PCP can be transferred to 
the fetus even though the mother had ceased 
using PCP prior to becoming pregnant. Babies 
that are born exposed to PCP may experience 
symptoms of withdrawal or intoxication from 
days to months after birth. Also, the breast milk 
of PCP-using mothers has been shown to contain 
PCP. 10 



3 Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, p. 444; 
Oakley Ray and Charles Ksir, Drugs, Society, & Human 
Behavior, fifth ed., 1990, p. 314. 

4 Dairy 1 S. Inaba and William E. Cohen, Uppers, Downers, All 
Arounders, 1989, p. 144. 

5 Feldman, et al, p. 32. 

6 Testimony of Dr. Frank E. Minyard, PCP— A Killer on the Rise, 
Report of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and 
Control, 1978, p. 15. 



7 Inaba, pp. 144-5. 
"Minyard, p. 16. 
9 Inaba, p. 145. 
l0 Inaba, pp. 173, 179. 



18 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA FIELD DIVISION ASSESSMENTS 



ATLANTA FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Atlanta Field 
Division is responsible for DEA Resident Offices 
(RO's) located in Georgia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, and Tennessee. 

Summary: Use of PCP is not reported to be 
prevalent in the Atlanta metropolitan area. 
DAWN data have shown no PCP-related 
emergency room mentions since September 
1990. When available, liquid PCP costs 
approximately $1,000 per ounce. 

BOSTON FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Boston Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 

Summary: Outside of the greater Boston area, 
PCP availability is limited in Massachusetts. In 
Maine and Vermont, it is reported as unavailable. 
In Connecticut, PCP is mixed with embalming 
fluid (formaldehyde and methanol), applied to 
mint leaves and marijuana, and smoked in 
hollowed-out cigars. Cigarettes are also dipped 
in the PCP and embalming fluid mixture. PCP 
microdots and tablets are available in small 
amounts in Woonsacket, Rhode Island. 
Throughout the division, prices for PCP range 
from $25 to $35 per cigarette and from $200 to 
$500 per ounce. 

In Massachusetts, PCP is sold in urban 
neighborhoods, specifically Boston, East Boston, 
South Boston, Charlestown, Cambridge, 
Somerville, and the Hyde Park/Roslindale areas. 
Distributors operating in Charlestown typically 
travel by car or train to New York City weekly to 
replenish their PCP supplies. Charlestown 
distributors operate in an environment where they 
are well known by users who are disinclined to 
testify against them. This situation, described as 



creating a "code of silence," has hampered 
investigative efforts directed against the major 
distributors. 

PCP commonly is purchased in ounce bags of 
plant matter from New York sources of supply, 
often Belizian nationals. Usually, 2 ounces are 
purchased at a time; they cost $600 and are 
referred to as "double ounces." The ounce bags 
then are transported to Boston and divided into 
bags or envelopes that retail for $50 each. This 
process allows the distributor to reap a $2,500 
profit on each "double ounce" of PCP. 

Larger distributors purchase gallons of liquid 
PCP in New York City. However, rather than 
selling it in ounce quantities in Boston, they 
prefer to process it themselves into smokeable 
plant matter and package it into baggies for 
immediate sale at the retail level. 

CHICAGO FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Chicago Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, and 
Wisconsin. 

Summary: Although PCP in powdered form 
rarely is encountered in the division, liquid PCP 
increasingly is becoming available in the Chicago 
area. An estimated 50 percent of the PCP 
available in Chicago originates from sources of 
supply in Los Angeles. In Chicago, PCP is 
distributed almost exclusively by local street 
gangs. Widespread availability of PCP is 
reported in African-American communities in the 
South and West Sides where it is called "water." 
PCP is available in the city's Northwest Side, 
particularly among Hispanics. Investigative 
reporting indicates that Chicago is a source city 
for precursor chemicals used in the manufacture 
of PCP. 



DEA Sensitive 



19 



DEA Sensitive 



In northwestern Indiana, PCP is distributed 
primarily by the Spanish Gangster Disciples 
street gang, which is affiliated with similar gangs 
in Chicago and East Chicago, Indiana. 

PCP usually is encountered in one of three 
forms: mint leaves sprayed with PCP that are 
wrapped in tin foil and that sell from $10 to $20; 
"sherm sticks," consisting of "More" brand 
cigarettes dipped in PCP that sell for $10; and 
"happy sticks," hand-rolled tobacco cigarettes 
dipped in PCP that sell for $10 each. Prices for 
ounces of liquid PCP range from $200 to $400. 
When available, powdered ounces of PCP cost 
from $1,500 to $2,000. The Minneapolis 
Resident Office reports that liquid ounces of PCP 
can cost as little as $150. 

PCP in powdered form, known as "tic" on the 
street, is used primarily by Hispanic youth in the 
Northwest Side of Chicago. It is beige in color, 
is packaged in foil, and costs from $13 to $20. 

Emergency room mentions in Chicago for PCP 
and PCP combinations have increased lately. 

DALLAS FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Dallas Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Amarillo, Fort Worth, Lubbock, Midland, and 
Tyler, Texas, as well as the State of Oklahoma. 

Summary: In Dallas, the use of crack in 
conjunction with liquid PCP remains relatively 
prevalent within certain communities. PCP is 
readily available and abused in the African- 
American community in the north section of 
Tulsa, Oklahoma. PCP also is reported to be 
used in conjunction with crack cocaine in Tulsa. 
PCP-laced cigarettes cost from $5 to $10 each. 
Prices for 1 ounce of PCP range from $600 to 
$900. 



DENVER FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Denver Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. 

Summary: PCP is virtually unavailable 
throughout the Denver Division. PCP treatment 
admissions have never comprised more than 0.2 
percent of total drug admissions in the past 6 
years in Colorado. Only three PCP admissions 
were reported in the state in 1992. 

DETROIT FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Detroit Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. 

Summary: PCP-laced cigarettes cost from $10 
to $15 and are referred to as "Sherms" in Detroit. 
Bottles containing 1/8 ounce of PCP cost from 
$60 to $80 each with 1/4 ounce bottles selling for 
approximately $120 each. 

HOUSTON FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Houston Field 
Division is responsible for DEA District Offices 
(DO's) and RO's located in Alpine, Austin, 
Beaumont, Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Eagle 
Pass, El Paso, Galveston, Laredo, McAllen, and 
San Antonio, Texas. 

Summary: The availability of PCP in the 
Houston Division is limited. Liquid PCP 
commonly is transported to Houston from Los 
Angeles by African-American traffickers. In 
November 1993, 2 kilograms of PCP were seized 
at the Sierra Blanca, Texas, checkpoint by the 
U.S. Border Patrol. The PCP originated in Los 
Angeles and was destined for Houston. It was 
contained in a 1 gallon can wrapped in grey 
plastic and masking tape. 



20 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



LOS ANGELES FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Los Angles Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Riverside, Santa Ana, and Santa Barbara, 
California, in addition to Hawaii, Guam, and 
Nevada. 

Summary: The primary manufacturers/ 
traffickers of PCP are African- Americans who 
live in or have ties to the south-central area of 
Los Angeles or Compton, California. Many of 
these are members of one of the 1,100 known 
street gangs that operate in Los Angeles, 
primarily under the auspices of the two major 
gangs, the Bloods and the Crips. The Crips gang 
is larger and stronger and, therefore, is involved 
more heavily in the manufacture and trafficking 
of PCP. 



Figure 15 



Chemicals Used in PCP 

Production 
Los Angeles-Area Prices 


Chemical 


Amount 


Cost 


Piperidine 


3/4 gallon 


$72.00 


Cyclohexanone 


5 gallons 


$294.00 


Bromobenzene 


5 gallons 


$275.00 


Sodium Bisulfite 


5 pounds 


$44.10 


Sodium Cyanide 


5 pounds 


$74.50 


Potassium Cyanide 


5 pounds 


$124.00 


Ethyl Ether 


5 gallons 


$205.20 



Note: It is estimated that these chemicals could 
produce 5 gallons of 15- to 20-percent pure 
PCP, with a production cost of $218 per gallon. 



There may be as few as a dozen actual PCP 
manufacturing organizations operating within the 
greater Los Angeles area. These organizations 
are responsible for supplying a significant 
volume of PCP to the Midwest and Eastern 
United States. Reporting indicates that PCP 
manufacturers fill large orders for PCP, up to 
multigallons, within a relatively short period of 
time. 

One major investigation was initiated as a result 
of a purchase of 70 gallons of ether from a 
chemical supplier in Las Vegas, Nevada. The 
purchaser was a controlling member of Los 
Angeles' Grape Street Crip gang. Subsequent 
search of the subject's home in Perris, California, 
revealed approximately 70 pounds of PCC that 
could have been manufactured into 153 gallons 
of finished PCP. 

In Las Vegas, a resurgence of PCP trafficking is 
taking place within the African- American 
community. It has become the secondary drug, 
behind crack, trafficked by street gangs in the 
area. Ounce quantities cost from $250 to $300. 



The price per gallon of PCP has dropped to 
approximately $3,000 for local customers; but, 
for out-of-state buyers, the price is typically 
$8,000 to $10,000 per gallon. 

The California Department of Justice, Bureau of 
Narcotics Enforcement, currently operates a 
Precursor Control Program that closely monitors 
the sale of chemicals and related equipment used 
in the clandestine manufacture of illicit drugs. 
The Precursor Control Program personnel 
maintain a data base of information obtained 
from sales invoices generated by companies that 
sell chemicals and laboratory equipment. This 
information includes the date of purchase, the 
quantity and cost of the product purchased, and 
the purchaser's driver's license and vehicle 
information. The chemicals and equipment 
recorded in this system are not covered by the 
CDTA. The information contained in this data 
base can be a great source of intelligence for drug 
law enforcement. 



DEA Sensitive 



21 



DEA Sensitive 



MIAMI FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Miami Field 
Division is responsible for DEA DO's and RO's 
located in Florida, the Commonwealth of Puerto 
Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Country 
Offices located in The Bahamas, Barbados, the 
Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica. 

Summary: According to Mr. James N. Hall, 
executive director of Up Front Drug Information 
Center in Miami, telephone calls to a drug abuse 
hotline regarding PCP increased in 1993. In 
addition, PCP is believed to be the substance 
sold in some homosexual dance-clubs in Miami 
under the street name "Special K" and touted as 
ketamine, a PCP analogue. Throughout the rest 
of the division PCP availability is very limited. 

NEWARK FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Newark Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Atlantic City and Camden, New Jersey. 

Summary: In New Jersey, the major PCP 
consumer market is Trenton. PCP also is readily 
available in Mercer County. PCP is purchased in 
New York City and is distributed primarily by 
African-Americans. There is limited PCP 
availability in Union and Cape May Counties. 
All ethnic groups are involved in PCP 
distribution. Prices within the division range 
from $190 to $600 for ounce quantities of liquid 
PCP, while powdered ounces cost from $1,000 to 
$1,200. Ounce quantities are commonly sold in 
vanilla extract bottles. PCP cigarettes cost 
approximately $10 each. There were only two 
arrests for PCP possession in 1993. 



NEW ORLEANS FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The New Orleans Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. 

Summary: PCP availability is limited 
throughout the New Orleans Division. 

NEW YORK FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The New York Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Albany, Buffalo, Long Island, and Rochester, 
New York. 

Summary: The majority of the PCP available in 
western New York State is believed to originate 
from small laboratory operators based in the 
Buffalo or Rochester areas. However, most of the 
PCP available in New York City is believed to 
originate in California. The availability of PCP 
on Long Island is reported to be limited. 

In New York City, PCP is sold in bags that cost 
from $10 to $20 in the vicinity of West 144th 
Street and Bradhurst Avenue. The brand name of 
these bags is "Blue Madman." On Park Avenue 
between East 1 15th and 1 16th Streets, PCP is 
sold in foil packets called "tins" that cost $10 
each. A third PCP selling location was identified 
as 7th Avenue between West 121st and 123rd 
Streets with bags of PCP referred to as "Angel." 
These bags also sell for $10 or $20 each. 

Jamaican distributors in the Upper East Side of 
Manhattan, reportedly under the auspices of the 
Spangler Posse, sell ounce quantities of PCP 
powder for approximately $500. Street sellers 
carry small bottles of liquid PCP and will dip a 
customer's cigarette into it for $20. 

PCP prices throughout the division range from $7 
to $10 per bag or envelope containing 5 grams of 
mint or parsley sprayed with PCP. Ounces of 
liquid PCP cost approximately $300, while 
powdered ounces range from $500 to $1,200. 
The price for a gallon of liquid PCP is 
approximately $13,000. 



22 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



PHILADELPHIA FIELD DIVISION 



SAN DIEGO FIELD DIVISION 



Area of Responsibility: The Philadelphia Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Delaware and Pennsylvania. 

Summary: Although PCP abuse is not 
considered widespread, PCP is readily available 
in most areas of the division. It is distributed 
almost exclusively by African- Americans in 
inner-city areas. Nevertheless, a recent 
investigation identified a Jamaican organization 
distributing ounce quantities of PCP in the 
Philadelphia area. Chicago, Detroit, Los 
Angeles, and New York City have been identified 
as source cities for most of the PCP sold in 
Pennsylvania. 

The Pittsburgh Resident Office reports that PCP 
is not available in Western Pennsylvania. In 
Delaware, PCP is sold primarily in the northern 
portion of the state. 

Gram quantities of PCP, typically sold in plastic 
vials, cost $30, while ounce quantities can be 
purchased for $700. Some distributors in the 
Philadelphia area freeze parsley laced with PCP, 
then dice it into fine flakes that can be measured 
easily into retail-level portions or rolled into 
tobacco or marijuana cigarettes. Small plastic 
bags containing enough leaf for three to eight 
cigarettes cost $10. One bundle of 10 bags costs 
from $40 to $60 wholesale. Ounce quantities of 
the liquid, which can yield 30 to 40 bundles, cost 
$450 to $500. Recently, the price has declined to 
$350 per ounce due to increased supplies. 

PHOENIX FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Phoenix Field 
Division is responsible for a DEA DO in Tucson 
and RO's located in Nogales, Sierra Vista, and 
Yuma, Arizona. 

Summary: PCP availability is limited 
throughout the Phoenix Division. 



Area of Responsibility: The San Diego Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Calexico, Carlsbad, and San Ysidro, California. 

Summary: PCP availability is limited 
throughout the San Diego Division. However, 
anecdotal reports indicate that PCP availability 
and use are increasing somewhat in the San 
Diego area. 

SAN FRANCISCO FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The San Francisco 
Field Division is responsible for DEA RO's 
located in Fresno, Monterey, Sacramento, and 
San Jose, California. 

Summary: PCP is available in limited quantities 
in northern Californian cities and is used 
predominantly in Hispanic and African-American 
communities. The price for a cigarette laced with 
PCP has declined from $20 to $ 5 to $10 each. 
Reports indicate that partially processed PCP is 
transported from Los Angeles to the San Joaquin 
Valley-Fresno area for final processing. 

SEATTLE FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Seattle Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and 
Washington. 

Summary: PCP availability is limited 
throughout the Seattle Division. However, 
anecdotal reporting indicates that PCP-laced 
marijuana cigarettes (sherms) are being smoked 
more frequently in the Seattle area. 



DEA Sensitive 



23 



DEA Sensitive 



ST. LOUIS FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The St. Louis Field 
Division is responsible for DEA RO's located in 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, and South 
Dakota. 

Summary: PCP is available in limited 
quantities within inner-city areas of several 
divisional cities. It is trafficked and abused 
almost exclusively by African- Americans. 
Liquid PCP sells for $350 per ounce when 
available. The Kansas City RO reports that PCP 
is sporadically available and sells for $1,500 per 
liquid ounce. 

WASHINGTON, DC FIELD DIVISION 

Area of Responsibility: The Washington, DC 
Field Division is responsible for DEA RO's 
located in Maryland, Virginia, and West 
Virginia. 

Summary: PCP is readily available in several 
areas within the division, particularly the District 
of Columbia and its suburbs in northern Virginia, 
Prince Georges County (Maryland), and 
Baltimore. African-American traffickers 
dominate the wholesale markets. The majority 
of the PCP is transported from Los Angeles and 



New York City. In turn, Washington, DC has 
become a source city for PCP available in 
Baltimore and northern Virginia. PCP typically 
is purchased in the Los Angeles area and 
transported by bus or by private or commercial 
vehicles to the District of Columbia. Often 
female couriers are used to transport ounce 
quantities of liquid PCP cross-country. Express 
mail and postal services also are used to ship PCP 
into the division. 

PCP availability has increased recently in the 
District of Columbia, where Phillies "Blunts" 
brand cigars, gutted and filled with marijuana 
dipped in liquid PCP, are becoming popular. PCP 
laced with gasoline, referred to as "octane," is 
sold by some groups. Among some users in the 
southern suburbs of Baltimore, liquid PCP is 
referred to as "South Baltimore Wine" and is 
consumed in minimal doses to obtain a "mellow" 
effect. 

At the retail level, PCP- laced plant material in 
packets of tinfoil sell for $20 each, and are 
referred to as "tins" on the street. Slightly larger 
portions known as "cans" (35-millimeter film 
canisters) sell for $50 each. 




24 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 

APPENDIX 1 
PCP-RELATED STREET TERMINOLOGY 



ace, AD, amoeba, angel dust, angel hair, angel 
mist, angel puke, animal, animal tranquilizer, 
aurora borealis, belladonna, black whack, 
blast, boat, busy bee, buzz, Cadillac, 
cannabinol, cigarrode cristal, CJ, columbo, 
cozmos, crazy coke, cristal, crystal, crystal 
joints, crystal T, cycline, cyclones, D, Detroit 
pink, devil's dust, dipper, DOA, dog, double 
dipper, drink, dummy dust, dust, dust joint, 
elephant tranquilizer, embalming fluid, 
energizer, erth, fake STP, flakes, fresh, fuel, 
good, goon, goon dust, gorilla tab, green, green 
tea, heaven and hell, herms, hog, horse tracks, 
horse tranquilizer, ice, jet fuel, juice, K, K- 
blast, kaps, killer joints, killer weed, KJ, kools, 
krystal, krystal joint, KW, LBJ, leaky bolla, 
leaky leak, lemon 714, lenos, little ones, live 
ones, lovely, magic, magic dust, mean green, 
mint leaf, mintweed, mist, monkey dust, 
monkey tranquilizer, more, new acid, new 
magic, niebla, oil, orange crystal, ozone, P, 
parsley, paz, PCPA, peace, PeaCe Pill, 
peaceweed, peanut butter, peep, Peter Pan, pig 
killer, polvo,polvo de angel, polvo de estrellas, 
puffy, rocket fuel, scaffle, scuffle, sheets, 
sherman, sherms, skuffle, smoking, snorts, 
spores, star dust, stick, super, super grass, 
super joint, super kools, super weed, surfer, 
synthetic cocaine, synthetic THC, T, TAC, T- 
buzz, tea, THC, tic, tish, titch, trank, TT-1, 
TT-2, TT-3, wack, water, weed, whack, white 
powder, wobble weed, wolf, worm, yellow 
fever, zombie weed, zoom." 
— street names for PCP. 

amphetamine, cannabinol, cocaine, hashish, 
heroin, ketamine, LSD, MDA, mescaline, 
peyote, psilocybin, quaalude, STP, THC 

— names of other illicit drugs used to sell PCP to 
unsuspecting customers. 

Angel, Blue Madman, Cliffhanger, Crazy 
Eddie, Do It Jack, Lethal Weapon, Maddog, 
Mad Man, OPP, Purple Rain, Red Devil 

— brand names used to sell PCP. 



beam me up Scotty, beaming 

— used to describe intense high from smoking 
crack dipped in liquid PCP. 

bummer trip 

— unsettling and threatening experience from 
PCP intoxication. 12 

burning out 

— sustained and regular PCP use for a period of 
time as short as one week. 
getting burnt 

— temporary acute ill effects of PCP 
intoxication. 
being burnt 

— chronic adverse condition from frequent use, 
cumulative effects of impaired physical, 
mental, and social functioning (uncoordinated, 
forgetful, unreliable, distracted, 
uncomprehending), pale and gaunt appearance 
in more serious cases. 13 

buzzed, wasted, ozoned, overdosed 

— terms used to describe stages of PCP 

intoxication. 

buzzed — mild euphoria, stimulation, activity 
is enjoyed, appearance of straight and drug- 
free behavior is the intent. 
wasted — body-wide anesthetic effect 
especially in legs and feet, difficulty in 
coordinating body movements, slurred speech, 
walking described as amusing (the ground 
turned into sponge or marshmallows), users 
recognize slow body movements, awkward 
and unbalanced, speeding up of thought 
processes, enjoyable out-of-body-type 
experience (observing oneself). 
ozoned — user becomes incoherent and 
immobile, although still conscious. 
overdosed — loss of consciousness. 14 



12 Feldman, et al, p. 43 

13 Feldman, et al, pp. 43, 98, 174. 



Ronald L. Linder, et al, PCP: The Devil's Dust, 1981, pp. 9-10. 



14 Feldman. et al, p. 39. 



DEA Sensitive 



25 



DEA Sensitive 



dime, dime up 

— packaging PCP for retail sales; liquid PCP is 
poured over parsley in mason jars, then placed in 
smaller individual containers such as film 
canisters; five "dimes" make up a "lid." 

fifties, 50's 

— -street-level packages of PCP wrapped in heat 
sealed plastic that sell for $50 each in New York 
City; these packages are transported to Boston 
where they are broken down into smaller sales 
units and generate up to $300 for each "50" 
purchased initially. 

ghostbusters 

— crack dipped in liquid PCP. 

greened out 

—high on PCP. 

greens 

— parsley flakes laced with PCP. 

illy, milk, wet 

— PCP mixed with embalming fluid 
(formaldehyde and Methanol), often aplied to 
mint leaves and marijuana and smoked in 
hollowed-out cigars; cigarettes also are dipped in 
the PCP and embalming fluid mixture 
(Connecticut). 

ketamine, Ketalar 2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2- 
(methylamino)cyclohexanone 

— PCP analogue. 

lid 

—five "dimes" of PCP. 



peanut butter 

— PCP added to peanut butter (New Orleans). 

pipe 

— piperidine. 

rocket fuel 

— PCP and cocaine (Chicago). 

Sernyl 

— brand name for PCP made for human use by 
Parke, Davis and Company; withdrawn as an 
investigational drug in 1967 and licensed to 
another company as an anesthetic, for animal use, 
named Sernylan. 15 

shake and bake 

— PCP poured over parsley; the parsley is then 
spooned onto aluminum foil and folded into 
packets for retail sale. 

sherms 

— marijuana cigarettes laced with PCP; derived 
from the belief that it "hits you like a Sherman 
tank." 16 

space cadet 

— crack dipped in liquid PCP. 

space basing 

— smoking crack dipped in PCP. 

speedboat 

— marijuana, PCP, and crack combined and 
smoked; chips of crack are rolled into marijuana 
cigarettes and then dipped into liquid PCP; sold 
on street for $10 to $20 per joint. 



lovely 

— PCP and marijuana (southern California). 

missile basing 

— crack dipped in liquid PCP. 

moonwalking 

— taking slow and exaggerated steps while under 
the influence of PCP. 



tic 

— PCP in powder form. 

tragic magic 

— crack dipped in PCP. 

whack 

— mixture of crack and PCP. 



octane 

— PCP cut with gasoline (Washington, DC). 



15 Ray, p. 313. 

16 Ray, p. 314. 



26 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 

APPENDIX 2 

CHEMICALS COMMONLY USED IN THE 

CLANDESTINE MANUFACTURING OF PCP 



PRECURSORS 



REAGENTS 



Bromobenzene 

— clear, heavy liquid: flammable, corrosive, 
irritant. 

Cyclohexanone 

— white to pale liquid: flammable, skin absorber, 
high toxicity, central nervous system (CNS) 
effects. 

Phenylmagnesium Bromide 

— oily brown liquid: flammable, high toxicity, 
water reactive. 

Piperidine 

— colorless liquid: flammable, high toxicity, 
lachrymator, corrosive. 

SOLVENTS 

Benzene 

— clear liquid: flammable, carcinogen, skin 
absorber, high toxicity, CNS effects. 

Ethyl Ether 

— colorless liquid: flammable, moderate 
toxicity, CNS effects, explosive peroxides. 

Iso-octane (2,2,4-Trimethylpentane) 

— colorless liquid: highly flammable. 

Methanol 

— colorless liquid: flammable, moderate 
toxicity, CNS effects. 

Toluene 

— colorless liquid: flammable, moderate 
toxicity, CNS effects. 



Ammonium Chloride 

— white crystals: moderate toxicity. 

Ammonium Hydroxide 

— colorless liquid: high toxicity, lung irritant, 
corrosive. 

Hydrobromic Acid 

— yellow liquid: high toxicity, lung irritant, 
corrosive. 

Hydrochloric Acid 

— clear to yellow liquid: high toxicity, lung 
irritant, corrosive. 

Hydrogen Chloride (Anhydrous Hydrochloric 
Acid) 

— colorless gas (white vapors): high toxicity, 
lung irritant, corrosive. 

Iodine 

— blackish plates or granules: high toxicity, lung 
irritant, corrosive. 

Magnesium Turnings 

— silvery metal like aluminum: flammable, low 
toxicity. 

Potassium Carbonate 

— white granular powder: irritant, caustic. 

Sodium Bisulfite 

— white crystals: corrosive, low toxicity. 

Sodium Cyanide 

— white powder: skin absorber, high toxicity, 
corrosive. 

Para-Toluene Sulfonic Acid Monohydrate 

— white plates or powder: skin and mucous 
irritant. 



DEA Sensitive 



27 



PCBu 

PCC 

PCDE 

PCDMe 

PCE 

PCiPr 

PCM 

PCMe 

PCPr 

PHP, PCPy 

TCM 

TCP, TPCP 

TCPy 



DEA Sensitive 

APPENDIX 3 
PCP ANALOGUES 

1 -Pheny lcyclohexy lbuty lamine 

1-Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (a synthetic intermediate) 

1 -Pheny lcyclohexy ldiethy lamine 

1 -Phenylcyclohexyldimethylamine 

1 -Pheny lcyclohexylethylamine 

1-Phenylcyclohexylisopropylamine 

l-(l-Phenylcyclohexyl)morpholine 

1 -Pheny lcyclohexylmethylamine 

1 -Pheny lcyclohexylpropylamine 

1 -( 1 -Phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine 

1 -( 1 -[2-Thienyl]cyclohexyl)morpholine 

1 -( 1 -[2-Thienyl]cyclohexyl)piperidine 

1 -( 1 -[2-Thienyl]cyclohexyl)pyrrolidine 



Chemicals Used in the Manufacture of the Three Most Common PCP Analogues: 



28 





PCE 




Precursor 


Reagent 


Solvent 


Ethylamine 


Hydrochloric Acid 


Ethyl Ether 


Cyclohexanone 


Hydrogen Chloride (gas) 


Isopropyl Alcohol 


Bromobenzene 


Potassium Hydroxide 




and Lithium (metal) 






Phenyllithium 


PHP, PCPy 




Precursor 


Reagent 


Solvent 


Pyrrolidine 


Ammonium Chloride 


Ethyl Ether 


Cyclohexanone 


Ammonium Hydroxide 


Benzene 


Phenylmagnesium 


Hydrobromic Acid 


Iso-octane 


Bromide 


Hydrochloric Acid 


Toluene 


Bromobenzene 


Hydrogen Chloride (gas) 


Methanol 


Magnesium Turnings 


Iodine 
Potassium Carbonate 
Potassium Cyanide 
Sodium Bisulfite 
Sodium Cyanide 
Para-Toluenesulfonic 
Acid Monohydrate 

TCP, TPCP 




Precursor 


Reagent 


Solvent 


Piperidine 


Ammonium Chloride 


Ethyl Ether 


Cyclohexanone 


Ammonium Hydroxide 


Benzene 


2-Bromothiophene 


Hydrobromic Acid 


Iso-octane 


Magnesium Turnings 


Hydrochloric Acid 


Methanol 




Hydrogen Chloride (gas) 


Toluene 




Iodine 






Potassium Carbonate 






Potassium Cyanide 






Sodium Bisulfite 






Sodium Cyanide 






DEA Sensitive 





DEA Sensitive 

APPENDIX 4 

CHEMICALS CONTROLLED BY THE CHEMICAL 

DIVERSION AND TRAFFICKING ACT 



List I 




List II 


N-Acetylanthranilic Acid 


3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl- 
2-propanone 


Acetic Anhydride 


Anthranilic Acid 


N-Methylephedrine 


Benzyl Chloride 


Benzaldehyde 


N-Methypseudoephedrine 


2-Butanone (Methyl Ethyl Ketone) 


Benzyl Cyanide 


Norpseudoephedrine 


Ethyl Ether 


Ephedrine 


Phenylacetic Acid 


Hydrochloric Acid 


Ergonovine 


Phenylpropanolamine 


Potassium Permanganate 


Ergotamine 


Piperidine 


Sulfuric Acid 


Ethylamine 


Propionic Anhydride 


Toluene 


Hydriodic Acid 


Pseudoephedrine 




Isosafrole 


Safrole 




Methylamine 






Nitroethane 







DEA Sensitive 



29 



DEA Sensitive 

APPENDIX 5 
DEFINITIONS 

The NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, sponsored by the Substance Abuse 
and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), is a series of national surveys to measure the 
prevalence and frequency of drug use among the U.S. household population aged 12 and over. The 
survey samples the civilian non-institutionalized population living in households, college dormitories, 
and military installations and, therefore, does not include some segments of the U.S. population which 
may contain a substantial proportion of drug users, such as transients and those who are incarcerated. 
The SAMHSA publishes survey results on an annual basis. 

The NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR SURVEY is a series of nationwide studies of drug use 
frequency and related attitudes among high school seniors in the United States. The survey is conducted 
annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research and funded by research grants 
from the SAMHSA. In addition to high school seniors, the study includes the recently-added national 
surveys of 8th- and lOth-grade students. For the 1993 survey, approximately 50,000 8th-, 10th-, and 
12th-grade students across the country were questioned. 

The DRUG ABUSE WARNING NETWORK (DAWN) is a large-scale data collection system 
implemented in 1972 and designed to be an indicator of the severity, scope, and nature of the nation's 
substance abuse problem. The purpose of DAWN is to provide data on the incidence of drug abuse 
related episodes from participating hospital emergency rooms located in 21 U.S. metropolitan areas. 
DAWN is managed by the SAMHSA. 

The NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF JUSTICE (NIJ) established the Drug Use Forecasting Program 
(DUF) in 1987 to identify and monitor trends in drug use among arrestees in the United States. Each 
quarter, at central booking facilities in 24 participating jurisdictions, arrestees are asked to participate in 
a voluntary, anonymous interview and to provide a urine specimen. Urine samples are analyzed to 
detect the use of amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (such as Valium), cocaine, marijuana, 
methadone, methaqualone, opiates, PCP, and propoxyphenes (such as Darvon). Urinalysis testing 
results are published by the NIJ on a quarterly and annual basis. 



30 



DEA Sensitive 



DEA Sensitive 



DISTRIBUTION 






The White House 

National Security Council 

Office of National Drug Control Policy 

Department of Justice 

Federal Bureau of Investigation/DIU 

Federal Bureau of Prisons 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 

INTERPOL/USNCB 

Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces 

U.S. Marshals Service 

Department of the Treasury 

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 

Internal Revenue Service 

U.S. Customs Service 

U.S. Secret Service 

Department of Defense 

Defense Intelligence Agency 

National Security Agency 

Central Intelligence Agency/CNC 

Department of State 

U.S. Coast Guard 

DEA Headquarters 
DEA Field Offices 
DEA Laboratories 

El Paso Intelligence Center 

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network 

National Drug Intelligence Center 

International Association of Chiefs of Police (Narcotics Committee) 

National Alliance of State Drug Enforcement Agencies 

National Sheriffs' Association 



DEA Sensitive 31 



DEA Sensitive 



^epartme/y 



Of 




^%orcem eVxV 



DEA Sensitive